1. Grammar
  2. Noun
  3. Verb
  4. Adjective
  5. Adverb
  6. Conjunction
  7. Phrase


Verb is a word can function as a predicate or a word showing a person/thing does.

Classification of Verb.

There are 4 basic in classification of verb [V]:

  1. Tense:  V1V2V3;
  2. ObjectTransitive V, Intransitive V;
  3. Change of timeRegular V, Irregular V;
  4. FunctionFull V, Auxiliary V [Primary AV (to be, to do, & to have), Secondary AV], Linking V [to be, related to our senses, related to condition/situation].

Verb 1 [V1]

V1 is used for present tense [masa kini].

  • Example:  (+)  I study English every Friday.

Verb 2 [V2]

V2 is used for past tense [masa lampau].

  • Example:  (+)  I study Math last night.

Verb 3 [V3]

V3 is past participle used for perfect tense.

  • Example:  (+)  I have finished my home work when you call me last night.
  • Have is used if subject is I, we, you, or they;
  • Has is used if subject is he, she, it, or name of person.

Transitive Verb

Transitive verb is a verb that needs object.

  • Example:  read, study, etc.

Intransitive Verb

Intransitive verb is a verb that doesn’t need object.

  • Example:  sleep, etc.

Regular Verb

Regular verb is a verb which has the rule [Verb + d/ed] to make its V2 and V3.

  • Example:  study [study+ed = studied], save [save+d = saved], etc.

Irregular Verb

Irregular verb is a verb which doesn’t have follow the rule to make its V2 and V3.

  • Example:  read, beat, eat, go, come, etc.

Full Verb

Full verb, usually said only verb, is also known  as Ordinary verb, Main verb, Lexicale verb, Principle verb, Meaningful verb, or National verb.

  • Example:  work, study, etc.

Auxiliary Verb

Auxiliary verb divided into 2 verb:  Primary auxiliary verb and Secondary auxiliary verb.

Primary Auxiliary Verb

There are 3 kinds of Primary auxiliary verb: to be, to do, and to have.

To be-Primary Auxiliary Verb

To be-Primary auxiliary verb are is, am, are, was, and were

  • Example: 
  • (+)  She is studying English.
  • (+)  My mother is a teacher.
  • (+)  I am a student.
  • (+)  We are the winner.
  • (+)  I was eating.
  • (+)  They were busy last night.

To do-Primary Auxiliary Verb

To do-Primary auxiliary verb are do, does, and did.

  • Example: 
  • (+)  I do need you.  (do in this sentence means as emphasizing [benar-benar/sungguh-sungguh])
  • (?)  Does she study math everyday?
  • (-)  She didn’t study math last night.

To have-Primary Auxiliary Verb

To have-Primary auxiliary verb, usually folowed by V3 and used for prefect tense, are have, has, and had.

  • Example:
  • (+)  I have done my homework.
  • (+)  She has done her homework.
  • (+)  I have studied last night so I can do the test.
  • (+)  I had studied when she came yesterday.

Secondary Auxiliary Verb

Secondary auxiliary verbused for future tense, are can, could, will, would, shall, should, may, might, must, ought to, have to, and dare.

  • Example:
  • (+)  She can do that.
  • (+)  I will go home at night.
  • (+)  I shall go to Bali.
  • For 3 sample above,
  • shall is used for subject: I and we, and
  • will is used for all subject.
  • (?)  May I come to your house?
  • Dare
  • (-)  I dare not to swim in the sea.
  • (?)  Dare you swim in the sea.

The differences between Primary Auxiliary Verb [PAV] & Secondary Auxiliary Verb [SAV]:

  1. SAV is always followed by V1, and PAV is not followed.
  2. SAV has meaning, dan PAV doesn’t have such thing.


Make a sentence of each type of verbs!

Linking Verb

Linking verb is a verb that link a subject and its compliment.

There are two kinds of compliments:  noun compliment and adjective compliment.

  • Example:
  • (+)  She       is       a student.
  •          S        LV          NC           
  • (+)  She    looks   beautiful.
  •          S        LV          AC           
  • [S = subject, LV = Linking Verb, NC = Noun Compliment, and AC = Adjective Compliment, AP = Adverb of Place, AT = Adverb of Time]

To be-Linking Verb

To be-Linking verb are is, am, are, was, and were.

  • Example:
  • (+)  I     am       a student.
  •        S     LV            NC
  • (+)  You      are      beautiful.
  •           S        LV           AC
  • (+)  I     was       an elementary school student.
  •        S      LV                          NC
  • (+)  They      were       children.
  •            S           LV              NC

Related To Our Senses-Linking Verb

Related to our senses-Linking verb are look, sound, smell, feel, and taste.

  • Example:
  • (+)  The music      sounds      great.
  •                S                 LV            AC
  • (+)  The flower    smells       goods.
  •                 S               LV            AC
  • (+)  I     feel       good.
  •        S     LV         AC
  • (+)  The cake      tastes       delicious.
  •              S                LV              AC

Related To Condition/Situation-Linking Verb

Related to condition/situation-Linking verb are seem, appear, grow, become, fall, turn, remain, and run.

  • Example:
  • (+)  The dress        seems           goods.
  •               S                   LV                AC
  • (+)  She             grows         up.
  •          S                  LV           AC
  • (+)  The bus         appears          closer      in the rear view mirror.
  •              S                   LV                 AC                       AP
  • (+)  She           becomes                 a popstar.
  •           S                 LV                          NC
  • (+)  I        fall           asleep.
  •        S        LV             AC
  • (+)  The caterpillar             turns into        butterfly.
  •                   S                                LV                  NC
  • (+)  The weather             remains          cloudy             recently.
  •                 S                             LV                 AC                     AT
  • (+)  The meeting            runs                 succesful.
  •                 S                        LV                       AC

AYe’s exercise to make a sentence of each type of verbs.

  1. V1 [Present]:  I like swimming.
  2. V2 [ Past]:  I went to swimming pool last week.
  3. V3 [Past Participle]:  I had finished swimming when my brother came to my home. 
  4. Transitive V:  I think about my study everyday.
  5. Intransitive V:  I walk to my office everyday.
  6. Regular V:  We submit our report on time.
  7. Irregular V:  They came home late at night because of traffic jam.
  8. Full V:  His parents know my name.
  9. Primary AV-to be:  This song is so beautiful one.
  10. Primary AV-to do:  He do love sad songs.
  11. Primary AV-to have:  We have heard this song’s title but now we forget.
  12. Secondary AV:  She will not forget this song.

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